Epidemiology of tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Houston children
Background. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmentally ubiquitous organisms whose epidemiology is poorly understood. Species differ with respect to disease presentation, prognosis, and antimicrobial susceptibility. We reviewed one Texas pediatric hospital's experience with NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease.^ Methods. This was a retrospective case series of children with culture-confirmed mycobacterial infections seen at a children's hospital from 2003-2008.^ Results. One hundred sixty-two isolates were identified from 150 children; 132 (81.5%) had NTM species isolated, and 30 (18.5%) had M. tuberculosis isolated; 2 children had both NTM and M. tuberculosis isolated. The most common species were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (29%), M. tuberculosis (18.5%), M. abscessus (13%), M. fortuitum (11.7%), and M. chelonae-abscessus (9.9%). TB was the most common organism isolated from respiratory specimens. MAC and M. simiae were significantly more likely to be associated with lymphadenopathy than other NTM species (p < 0.001). Mycobacterium fortuitum was significantly more likely to be associated with soft tissue infections than other NTM species (p < 0.001). Seventy-five children met criteria for NTM disease (30 lymphadenopathy, 17 pulmonary, 17 soft tissue infections, 11 bacteremia). Children with NTM lymphadenopathy were more likely to be Hispanic (OR 24, CI 2.8-1063), younger (3.3 years vs. 10.6 years, p < 0.001), and previously healthy (OR 0.004, CI 0-0.06) than children with NTM pulmonary disease. Children with NTM disease were less likely to be previously healthy (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.88) and foreign-born (OR 0.09, CI 0.03-0.29) than children with TB.^ Conclusions. Children with NTM lymphadenopathy were younger and more likely to be healthy than children with NTM pulmonary disease. Tuberculosis comprised a large proportion of mycobacterial disease in this series. Children with NTM pulmonary disease were less likely to be previously healthy and born abroad when compared to children with TB. There was wide variation in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among NTM species. This, together with the large percentage of disease caused by TB, emphasizes the importance of securing a specific microbiologic diagnosis in children with pulmonary or lymph node disease caused by mycobacteria.^
Health Sciences, Public Health|Health Sciences, Epidemiology
Andrea Tania Cruz,
"Epidemiology of tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Houston children"
(January 1, 2009).
Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest).