The role of the experience and expression of anger in future cardiovascular profiles in young adolescents
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is this nation's leading source of morbidity and mortality, with health disparities evident. Despite inconsistencies in the literature, there is a growing body of evidence that links anger and CV reactivity (CVR) to future CVD. Because CVD is a life-long process with beginnings in childhood, and because adolescents experience and express anger frequently, the need to understand the role that anger has in future CV profiles is important. If identifiable patterns are found, nursing interventions can be implemented at the most beneficial point in the lifespan. This study examined data collected as part of The Heartfelt Study (N = 374), which investigated anger in relation to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and CVR in a multi-ethnic (African, Hispanic, and European American) sample of adolescents (Time 1). This investigator conducted a follow-up for all The Heartfelt Study participants, 11 to 13 years old at the beginning of study, still in attendance at the middle school (N = 44) one year later (Time 2) to determine: (1) changes in anger over time were associated with changes in ambulatory CV profiles: systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), heart rate (HR), and pulse pressure (PP) over time; and (2) the extent to which CVR, initiated by talking about a recent anger-producing event, related to future ambulatory CV profiles. A mixed-effects regression for repeated measures was used to analyze the data and found that SBP reactivity at Time 1 was significantly (β = 0.2341, t = 5.91, p < 0.0001) associated with ambulatory SBP at Time 2 and PP reactivity at Time 1 was significantly (β = 0.1530, t = 5.70, p < 0.0001) associated with ambulatory PP at Time 2. Changes in anger over time were not associated with changes in ambulatory BP measures over time. Further research on anger and CVR among adolescents over longer periods of time is recommended. ^
Psychology, Psychobiology|Psychology, Behavioral|Psychology, Physiological
Lisa R Reyes,
"The role of the experience and expression of anger in future cardiovascular profiles in young adolescents"
(January 1, 2004).
Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest).