Ambulatory blood pressure and physical activity in heart failure
Background. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) measurement is a means of monitoring cardiac function in a noninvasive way, but little is known about ABP in heart failure (HF) patients. Blood pressure (BP) declines during sleep as protection from consistent BP load, a phenomenon termed "dipping." The aims of this study were (1) to compare BP dipping and physical activity between two groups of HF patients with different functional statuses and (2) to determine whether the strength of the association between ambulatory BP and PA is different between these two different functional statuses of HF. ^ Methods. This observational study used repeated measures of ABP and PA over a 24-hour period to investigate the profiles of BP and PA in community-based individuals with HF. ABP was measured every 30 minutes by using a SpaceLabs 90207, and a Basic Motionlogger actigraph was used to measure PA minute by minute. Fifty-six participants completed both BP and physical activity for a 24-hour monitoring period. Functional status was based on New York Heart Association (NYHA) ratings. There were 27 patients with no limitation of PA (NYHA class I HF) and 29 with some limitation of PA but no discomfort at rest (NYHA class II or III HF). The sample consisted of 26 men and 30 women, aged 45 to 91 years (66.96 ± 12.35). ^ Results. Patients with NYHA class I HF had significantly greater dipping percent than those with NYHA class II/III HF after controlling their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). In a mixed model analysis (PROC MIXED, SAS Institute, v 9.1), PA was significantly related to ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure. The strength of the association between PA and ABP readings was not significantly different for the two groups of patients. ^ Conclusions. These preliminary findings demonstrate differences between NYHA class I and class II/III of HF in BP dipping status and ABP but not PA. Longitudinal research is recommended to improve understanding of the influence of disease progression on changes in 24-hour physical activity and BP profiles of this patient population. ^ Key Words. Ambulatory Blood Pressure; Blood Pressure Dipping; Heart Failure; Physical Activity. ^
Health Sciences, Nursing
"Ambulatory blood pressure and physical activity in heart failure"
(January 1, 2008).
Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest).