Involvement of HMGB1 in the repair of DNA adducts and the responses to DNA damage in mammalian cells
High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is a multifunctional protein with roles in chromatin structure, transcription, V(D)J recombination, and inflammation. HMGB1 also binds to and bends damaged DNA, but the biological consequence of this interaction is not clearly understood. We have shown previously that HMGB1 binds cooperatively with nucleotide excision repair (NER) damage recognition proteins XPA and RPA to triplex-directed psoralen DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Based on this we hypothesized that HMGB1 is enhancing the repair of DNA lesions, and through this role, is affecting DNA damage-induced mutagenesis and cell survival. Because HMGB1 is also a chromatin protein, we further hypothesized that it is acting to facilitate chromatin remodeling at the site of the DNA damage, to allow access of the repair machinery to the DNA lesion. We demonstrated here that HMGB1 could bind to triplex-directed psoralen ICLs in a complex with NER proteins XPC-RAD23B, XPA and RPA, which occurred in the presence or absence of DNA. Supporting these findings, we demonstrated that HMGB1 enhanced repair of triplex-directed psoralen ICLs (by nucleotide incorporation), as well as removal of UVC irradiation-induced DNA lesions from the genome (by radioimmunoassay). We also explored HMGB1's role in chromatin remodeling upon DNA damage. Immunoblotting demonstrated that, in contrast to HMGB1 proficient cells, cells lacking HMGB1 showed no increase in histone acetylation after UVC irradiation. Additionally, purified HMGB1 protein enhanced chromatin formation in an in vitro chromatin assembly system. However, HMGB1 also has a role in DNA repair in the absence of chromatin, as shown by measuring UVC-induced nucleotide incorporation on a naked substrate. Upon exploration of HMGB1's effect on several cellular outcomes of DNA damage, we found that mammalian cells lacking HMGB1 were hypersensitive to DNA damage induced by psoralen plus UVA irradiation or UVC radiation, showing less survival and increased mutagenesis. These results reveal a new role for HMGB1 in the error-free repair of DNA lesions in a chromosomal context. As strategies targeting HMGB1 are currently in development for treatment of sepsis and rheumatoid arthritis, our findings draw attention to potential adverse side effects of anti-HMGB1 therapy in patients with inflammatory diseases. ^
Sabine Sue Lloyd Lange,
"Involvement of HMGB1 in the repair of DNA adducts and the responses to DNA damage in mammalian cells"
(January 1, 2008).
Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest).