Characterization of cytochrome P450 4F subfamily: Response in traumatic brain injury and gene regulation
CYP4F enzymes metabolize endogenous molecules including arachidonic acid, leukotrienes and prostaglandins. The involvement of these eisosanoids in inflammation has led to the hypothesis that CYP4Fs may modulate inflammatory conditions after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In rat, TBI elicited changes in mRNA expression of CYP4Fs as a function of time in the cerebrum region. These changes in CYP4F mRNA levels inversely correlated with the cerebral leukotriene B4 (LTB4) level following injury at the same time points. TBI also resulted in changes in CYP4F protein expression and localization around the injury site, where CYP4F1 and CYP4F6 immunoreactivity increased in surrounding astrocytes and CYP4F4 immunoreactivity shifted from endothelia of cerebral vessels to astrocytes. The study with rat primary astrocytes indicated that pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β could affect the transcription of CYP4Fs to a certain degree, whereas the changing pattern in the primary astrocytes appeared to be different from that in the in vivo TBI model.^ In addition, the regulation of CYP4F genes has been an unsolved issue although factors including cytokines and fatty acids appear to affect CYP4Fs expression in multiple models. In this project, HaCaT cells were used as an in vitro cellular model to define signaling pathways involved in the regulation of human CYP4F genes. Retinoic acids inhibited CYP4F11 expression, whereas cytokines TNFα and IL-1β induced transcription of CYP4F11 in HaCaT cells. The induction of CYP4F11 by both cytokines could be blocked by a JNK specific inhibitor, indicating the involvement of the JNK pathway in the up-regulation of CYP4F11. Retinoic acids are known to function in gene regulation through nuclear receptors RARs and RXRs. The RXR agonist LG268 greatly induced transcription of CYP4F11, whereas RAR agonist TTNPB obviously inhibited CYP4F11 transcription, indicating that the down-regulation of CYP4F11 by retinoic acid was mediated by RARs, and that inhibition of CYP4F11 by retinoic acid may also be related to the competition for RXR receptors. Thus, the CYP4F11 gene is regulated by signaling pathways including the RXR pathway and the JNK pathway. In contrast, the regulation mechanism of other CYP4Fs by retinoic acids appears to be different from that of CYP4F11.^
Wang, Ying, "Characterization of cytochrome P450 4F subfamily: Response in traumatic brain injury and gene regulation" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3358134.