Caspase 8: Mediating the effects of a novel proteasome inhibitor, NPI-0052
Targeting the proteasome with the sole FDA approved proteasome inhibitor (PI), bortezomib, has been fruitful in specific cancers. Its success has generated an interest in next-generation PIs that might have a therapeutic advantage in cancers, such as leukemia, where bortezomib monotherapy was less effective. This study focuses on a novel, clinically relevant PI, NPI-0052. Experiments show that NPI-0052 targets chymotrypsin- and caspase-like activities more potently than the trypsin-like activity in leukemia cells. NPI-0052 induced apoptosis, as determined by caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Using caspase inhibitors and caspase-8 (I9.2) or FADD (I2.1) deficient cells revealed that caspase-8 was essential for NPI-0052-induced apoptosis. NPI-0052 killed cells via a caspase-8-tBid-mitochondrial pathway, relying on caspase-8, whereas bortezomib relies on several caspases. NPI-0052 increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, which contributed towards cytotoxicity since an antioxidant conferred protection. To improve the clinical efficacy of PIs, NPI-0052 was combined with epigenetic anti-cancer agents, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). NPI-0052 with MS-275 or vorinostat (FDA approved HDACi), synergistically induced apoptosis more effectively than an HDACi/bortezomib regimen in Jurkat cells. Caspase-8 and ROS contributed towards NPI-0052/HDACi cytotoxicity and caspase-8 mediated superoxide production by NPI-0052 or NPI-0052/HDACi. The proximal targets of these agents: proteasome activity and histone acetylation were examined to determine if they contributed towards synergistic effects. HDACi targeted proteasomal β subunits and corresponding catalytic activities responsible for degrading proteins. Immunoblotting showed increases in histone-H3 expression and its acetylation with NPI-0052 or NPI-0052/HDACi in Jurkat and primary cells. Importantly, the hyper-acetylation by NPI-0052 was not detected with bortezomib, suggesting that this effect may be unique to NPI-0052. An antioxidant attenuated histone-H3 expression and acetylation induced by NPI-0052 alone or with HDACi. Furthermore, the hyper-acetylation by NPI-0052 relied on caspase-8. These novel results show that a PI is eliciting classical epigenetic alterations, demonstrated by hyper-acetylation of histone-H3. This alteration was oxidant and caspase-8 dependent. Overall, results reveal that caspase-8 mediates many effects induced by NPI-0052. Data show overlapping activities by NPI-0052 and HDACi which are contributing, along with caspase-8 activation and oxidative stress, to cytotoxic interactions in leukemia cells, reinforcing the potential clinical utility of combining these two compounds. ^
Miller, Claudia Patricia, "Caspase 8: Mediating the effects of a novel proteasome inhibitor, NPI-0052" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3367968.