The role of beta-arrestin 2 in lysophosphatidic acid-induced NF-kappaB activation
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid and binds to its receptors, a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), which initiates multiple signaling cascades and leads to activation of several transcription factors, including NF-κB. NF-κB critically regulates numerous gene expressions, and is persistently active in many diseases. In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that LPA-induced NF-κB activation is dependent on a novel scaffold protein, CARMA3. However, how CARMA3 is recruited to receptor remains unknown. β-Arrestins are a family of proteins involved in desensitization of GPCR signaling. Additionally, β-arrestins function as signaling adaptor proteins, and mediate multiple signaling pathways. Therefore, we have hypothesized that β-arrestins may link CARMA3 to LPA receptors, and facilitate LPA-induced NF-κB activation. ^ Using β-arrestin-deficient MEFs, we found that β-arrestin 2, but not β-arrestin 1, was required for LPA-induced NF-κB activation. Also, we showed that the expression of NF-κB-dependent cytokines, such as interlukin-6, was impaired in β-arrestin 2-deficient MEFs. Mechanistically, we demonstrated the inducible association of endogenous β-arrestin 2 and CARMA3, and we found the CARD domain of CARMA3 interacted with 60-320 residues of β-arrestin 2. To understand why β-arrestin 2, but not β-arrestin 1, mediated NF-κB activation, we generated β-arrestin mutants. However, some mutants degraded quickly, and the rest did not rescue NF-κB activation in β-arrestin-deficient MEFs, though they had similar binding affinities with CARMA3. Therefore, it indicates that slight changes in residues may determine the different functions of β-arrestins. Moreover, we found β-arrestin 2 deficiency impaired LPA-induced IKK kinase activity, while it did not affect LPA-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation. ^ In summary, our results provide the genetic evidence that β-arrestin 2 serves as a positive regulator in NF-κB signaling pathway by connecting CARMA3 to LPA receptors. Additionally, we demonstrate that β-arrestin 2 is required for IKKα/β activation, but not for the inducible phosphorylation of IKKα/β. Because the signaling pathways around the membrane-proximal region of LPA receptors and GPCRs are quite conserved, our results also suggest a possible link between other GPCRs and CARMA3-mediated NF-κB activation. To fully define the role of β-arrestins in LPA-induced NF-κB signaling pathways will help to identify new drug targets for clinical therapeutics.^
Sun, Jiyuan, "The role of beta-arrestin 2 in lysophosphatidic acid-induced NF-kappaB activation" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3367970.