Alterations in cell adhesion and migration are transcriptionally regulated by the tumor suppressor, TP53
The p53 transcription factor is a tumor suppressor and a master regulator of apoptosis and the cell cycle in response to cell stress. In some advanced tumors, such as prostate cancers, the loss of p53 correlates with an increase in the occurrence of metastases. In addition, several groups have suggested that p53 status correlates with changes in cell migration and cell morphology associated with a migratory phenotype. Others have identified several genes with roles in cell migration that are directly transcriptionally regulated by p53. Even so, modulation of cell migration is not widely recognized as a p53 stress response. ^ In an effort to identify novel p53 target genes and expand our knowledge of the p53 transcriptional response, we performed Affymetrix gene expression analysis in p53-null PC3 prostate cancer cells following infection with a control virus or adenoviral construct expressing wild-type p53. Over 300 genes that had not been previously recognized as p53 target genes were identified. Of these genes, 224 were upregulated and 111 were downregulated (p<0.05). Functional over-representation analysis identified cell migration as a significantly over-represented biological function of p53. Further analysis identified two genes that are critical for the control of cell migration as potential p53 targets. One, hyaluronan mediated motility receptor (HMMR), has recently been shown to be a p53 target important for regulation of the cell cycle. Here, we show that HMMR is downregulated by p53 in several cell lines, and HMMR's regulation is dependent on the presence of the cdk inhibitor, p21, and histone deactelyase activity. The other gene, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), itself a tumor suppressor, is shown here, for the first time, as a p53 direct target by ChIP analysis. We next determined the effect of p53 activation on cell migration and found that p53 significantly slows the rate of cell migration in Boyden chamber migration assays and digital videomicroscopy wound healing studies. Further, our studies established the specific roles of CEACAM1 and HMMR in cell migration and determine that loss of CEACAM1 and overexpression of HMMR independently contribute to increased cell migration. Taken together, these studies provide a direct mechanistic link between p53 to the regulatory control of specific target genes that mediate cell adhesion and migration. ^
Pinaire, Nicole Lynn, "Alterations in cell adhesion and migration are transcriptionally regulated by the tumor suppressor, TP53" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3376896.