Transcriptional regulation of lung tumor suppressor GPRC5A in malignant and normal cells
Chronic exposure of the airways to cigarette smoke induces inflammatory response and genomic instability that play important roles in lung cancer development. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), the major intracellular mediator of inflammatory signals, is frequently activated in preneoplastic and malignant lung lesions. ^ Previously, we had shown that a lung tumor suppressor GPRC5A is frequently repressed in human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) cells and lung tumor specimens. Recently, other groups have shown that human GPRC5A transcript levels are higher in bronchial samples of former than of current smokers. These results suggested that smoking represses GPRC5A expression and thus promotes the occurrence of lung cancer. We hypothesized that cigarette smoking or associated inflammatory response repressed GPRC5A expression through NF-κB signaling. ^ To determine the effect of inflammation, we examined GPRC5A protein expression in several lung cell lines following by TNF-α treatment. TNF-α significantly suppressed GPRC5A expression in normal small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) as well as in Calu-1 cells. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that TNF-α inhibits GPRC5A expression at the transcriptional level. NF-κB, the major downstream effectors of TNF-α signaling, mediates TNF-α-induced repression of GPRC5A because over-expression of NF-κB suppressed GPRC5A. To determine the region in the GPRC5A promoter through which NF-κB acts, we examined the ability of TNF-α to inhibit a series of reporter constructs with different deletions of GPRC5A promoter. The luciferase assay showed that the potential NF-κB binding sites containing region are irresponsible for TNF-α-induced suppression. Further analysis using constructs with different deletions in p65 revealed that NF-κB-mediated repression of GPRC5A is transcription-independent. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that NF-κB could form a complex with RAR/RXR heterodimer. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of NF-κB has been found to be proportional to NF-κB/RAR ratio in luciferase assay. Finally, Chromatin IP demonstrated that NF-κB/p65 bound to GPRC5A promoter as well as RAR/RXR and suppressed transcription. Taken together, we propose that inflammation-induced NF-κB activation disrupts the RA signaling and suppresses GPRC5A expression and thus contributes to the oncogenesis of lung cancer. Our studies shed new light on the pathogenesis of lung cancer and potentially provide novel interventions for preventing and treating this disease. ^
Biology, Molecular|Biology, Genetics|Health Sciences, Oncology
Ye, Xiaofeng, "Transcriptional regulation of lung tumor suppressor GPRC5A in malignant and normal cells" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3376902.