Roles of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors
Imatinib mesylate, a selective inhibitor of KIT, PDGFR, and Abl kinases, has shown significant success as a therapy for patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). However, the underlying mechanisms of imatinib-induced cytotoxicity are not well understood. Using gene expression profiling and real-time PCR for target validation, we identified insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) to be to be up-regulated after imatinib treatment in imatinib-sensitive GISTs. IGFBP3 is a multifunctional protein that regulates cell proliferation and survival and mediates the effects of a variety of anti-cancer agents through IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that IGFBP3 mediates GIST cell response to imatinib. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated IGFBP3 protein levels in two KIT mutant, imatinib-sensitive GIST cell lines and assessed the resultant changes in cell viability, survival, and imatinib sensitivity. In GIST882 cells, endogenous IGFBP3 was required for cell viability. However, inhibiting imatinib-induced IGFBP3 up-regulation by RNA interference or neutralization resulted in reduced drug sensitivity, suggesting that IGFBP3 sensitizes GIST882 cells to imatinib. GIST-T1 cells, on the other hand, had no detectable levels of endogenous IGFBP3, nor did imatinib induce IGFBP3 up-regulation, in contrast to our previous findings. IGFBP3 overexpression in GIST-T1 cells reduced viability but did not induce cell death; rather, the cells became polyploid through a mechanism that may involve attenuated Cdc20 expression and securin degradation. Moreover, IGFBP3 overexpression resulted in a loss of KIT activation and decreased levels of mature KIT. Consistent with this, GIST-T1 cells overexpressing IGFBP3 were less sensitive to imatinib. Furthermore, as neither GIST882 cells nor GIST-T1 cells expressed detectable levels of IGF-1R, IGFBP3 is likely not exerting its effects by modulating IGF signaling through IGF-1R or IR/IGF-1R hybrid receptors in these cell lines. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that IGFBP3 has cell-dependent effects and would, therefore, not be an ideal marker for identifying imatinib response in GISTs. Nevertheless, our results provide preliminary evidence that IGFBP3 may have some therapeutic benefits in GISTs. ^
Dupart, Jheri J, "Roles of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3394960.