Tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Early and accurate detection of TB disease in HIV-infected individuals is a critical step for a successful TB program. In Vietnam, the diagnosis of TB disease, which is based predominantly on the clinical examination, chest radiography (CXR) and acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smear, has shown to be of low sensitivity in immunocompromised patients. The sputum culture is not routinely performed for patients with AFB negative smears, even in HIV-infected individuals.^ In that background, we conducted this cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of sputum culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), smear-negative PTB, and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in the HIV-infected population in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the largest city in Vietnam where both TB and HIV are highly prevalent. We also evaluated the diagnostic performance of various algorithms based on routine available tools in Vietnam such as symptoms screening, CXR, and AFB smear. Nearly 400 subjects were consecutively recruited from HIV-infected patients seeking care at the An Hoa Clinic in District 6 of Ho Chi Minh City from August 2009 through June 2010. Participants’ demographic data, clinical status, CXR, and laboratory results were collected. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to assess the association of covariates and PTB. ^ The prevalence of smear-positive TB, smear-negative TB, resistant TB, and MDR-TB were 7%, 2%, 5%, 2.5%, and 0.3%, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios for low CD4+ cell count, positive sputum smear, and CXR to positive sputum culture were 3.17, 32.04, and 4.28, respectively. Clinical findings alone had poor sensitivity, but the combination of CD4+ cell count, sputum smear, and CXR proved to perform a more accurate diagnosis.^ This study results support the routine use of sputum culture to improve the detection of TB disease in HIV-infected individuals in Vietnam. When routine sputum culture is not available, an algorithm combining CD4+ cell count, sputum smear, and CXR is recommended for diagnosing PTB. Future studies on more affordable, rapid, and accurate tests for TB infection would also be necessary to timely provide specific treatments for patients in need, reduce mortality, and minimize TB transmission to the general population.^
Health Sciences, Medicine and Surgery|Health Sciences, Public Health|Health Sciences, Epidemiology
Duc Tan Minh Nguyen,
"Tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam"
(January 1, 2011).
Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest).