Date of Graduation
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EUGENIE S KLEINERMAN, MD
JOYA CHANDRA, PHD
BRADLEY W MCINTYRE, PHD
GARY GALLICK, PHD
FELIPE SAMANIEGO, MD, MPH
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, MS-275, on the Fas signaling pathway and susceptibility of osteosarcoma (OS) to Fas ligand (FasL)-induced cell death. OS metastasizes almost exclusively to the lungs. We have shown that Fas expression in OS cells is inversely correlated with their metastatic potential. Fas+ cells are rapidly eliminated when they enter the lungs via interaction with FasL, which is constitutively expressed in the lungs. Fas- OS cells escape this FasL-induced apoptosis and survive in the lung microenvironment. Moreover, upregulation of Fas in established OS lung metastases results in tumor regression. Therefore, agents that upregulate Fas expression or activate the Fas signaling pathway may have therapeutic potential.
Treatment of Fas- metastatic OS cell lines with 2 μM MS-275 sensitized cells to FasL-induced cell death in vitro. We found that MS-275 did not alter the expression of Fas on the cell surface; rather it resulted in increased levels of Fas within the membrane lipid rafts, as demonstrated by an increase in Fas expression in detergent insoluble lipid raft fractions. We further demonstrated that following MS-275 treatment, Fas colocalized with GM1+ lipid rafts and that there was a decrease in c-FLIP (cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein) mRNA and protein. Downregulation of c-FLIP correlated with caspase activation and apoptosis induction. Transfection of cells with shRNA to c-FLIP also resulted in the localization of Fas to lipid rafts. These studies indicate that MS-275 sensitizes OS cells to FasL by upregulating the expression of Fas in membrane lipid rafts, which correlated with the downregulation of c-FLIP.
Treatment of nu/nu-mice with established OS lung metastases with oral MS-275 resulted in increased apoptosis, a significant inhibition of c-FLIP expression in tumors and tumor regression. Histopathological examination of mice showed no significant organ toxicity. Overall, these results suggest that the mechanism by which MS-275 sensitizes OS cells and lung metastases to FasL-induced cell death may be by a reduction in the expression of c-FLIP.
HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITORS, OSTEOSARCOMA, PULMONARY METASTASES, FAS, FAS LIGAND, C-FLIP, MS-275