Alterations in content and localization of defensins in rat ileum and jejunum following ischemia-reperfusion. Specific peptides, in specific places, for specific jobs?
Eplasty. 2011; 11: e8.
Objective: To determine alterations in quantities and distributions of natural antimicrobials following ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that these compounds would be upregulated in areas of small intestine where changes in permeability and cellular disruption were likely and where protective mechanisms would be initiated. Methods: Rats with ischemia-reperfusion underwent superior mesenteric artery clamping and reperfusion. Shams were subjected to laparotomy but no clamping. Ileum and jejunum were harvested and sectioned, and subjected to fluorescence deconvolution microscopy for determinations of content and localization of rat beta defensins, 1, 2, 3; rat neutrophil protein-1; and cathelicidin LL-37. Modeling was performed to determine cellular location of antimicrobials. Results: Ischemia-reperfusion increased neutrophil defensin alpha (RNP-1) in jejunum; rat beta defensin 1 was increased 2-fold in ileal mucosa and slightly reduced in jejunal mucosa; rat beta defensin 2 was reduced by ischemia-reperfusion in ileum, but slightly increased in jejunum; rat beta defensin 3 was concentrated in the muscularis externa and myenteric plexus of the jejunum; ischemia-reperfusion did not alter cathelicidin LL-37 content in the small intestine, although a greater concentration was seen in jejunum compared with ileum. Conclusion: Ischemia-reperfusion injury caused changes in antimicrobial content in defined areas, and these different regulations might reflect the specific roles of jejunum versus ileum.