Analysis of prognostic factors for the development of metastases and survival in renal cell carcinoma patients
Introduction and objective. A number of prognostic factors have been reported for predicting survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Yet few studies have analyzed the effects of those factors at different stages of the disease process. In this study, different stages of disease progression starting from nephrectomy to metastasis, from metastasis to death, and from evaluation to death were evaluated. Methods. In this retrospective follow-up study, records of 97 deceased renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients were reviewed between September 2006 to October 2006. Patients with TNM Stage IV disease before nephrectomy or with cancer diagnoses other than RCC were excluded leaving 64 records for analysis. Patient TNM staging, Furhman Grade, age, tumor size, tumor volume, histology and patient gender were analyzed in relation to time to metastases. Time from nephrectomy to metastasis, TNM staging, Furhman Grade, age, tumor size, tumor volume, histology and patient gender were tested for significance in relation to time from metastases to death. Finally, analysis of laboratory values at time of evaluation, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), UCLA Integrated Staging System (UISS), time from nephrectomy to metastasis, TNM staging, Furhman Grade, age, tumor size, tumor volume, histology and patient gender were tested for significance in relation to time from evaluation to death. Linear regression and Cox Proportional Hazard (univariate and multivariate) was used for testing significance. Kaplan-Meier Log-Rank test was used to detect any significance between groups at various endpoints. Results. Compared to negative lymph nodes at time of nephrectomy, a single positive lymph node had significantly shorter time to metastasis (p<0.0001). Compared to other histological types, clear cell histology had significant metastasis free survival (p=0.003). Clear cell histology compared to other types (p=0.0002 univariate, p=0.038 multivariate) and time to metastasis with log conversion (p=0.028) significantly affected time from metastasis to death. A greater than one year and greater than two year metastasis free interval, compared to patients that had metastasis before one and two years, had statistically significant survival benefit (p=0.004 and p=0.0318). Time from evaluation to death was affected by greater than one year metastasis free interval (p=0.0459), alcohol consumption (p=0.044), LDH (p=0.006), ECOG performance status (p<0.001), and hemoglobin level (p=0.0092). The UISS risk stratified the patient population in a statistically significant manner for survival (p=0.001). No other factors were found to be significant. Conclusion. Clear cell histology is predictive for both time to metastasis and metastasis to death. Nodal status at time of nephrectomy may predict risk of metastasis. The time interval to metastasis significantly predicts time from metastasis to death and time from evaluation to death. ECOG performance status, and hemoglobin levels predicts survival outcome at evaluation. Finally, UISS appropriately stratifies risk in our population.
Cheng, Jed-Sian, "Analysis of prognostic factors for the development of metastases and survival in renal cell carcinoma patients" (2008). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1450289.