Impact of oral contraceptives on weight, body composition, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in women age 18–30 years participating in a 15-week exercise program
Objective. To assess differences in body weight, body composition, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose between OC users and non-users age 18-30 y before and after a 15-week cardiovascular exercise program in Houston, TX from 2003 to 2007. Study Design. Secondary analysis of prospective data. Study Subjects. 453 Non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, and African American (AA) women age 18-30 y with no previous live birth, a history of menstruating, no use of other hormonal contraceptives or medications, no menopause or hysterectomy, and no current pregnancies. Measurements. Demographic data, medication use, and menstrual history were assessed via self-administered questionnaires at baseline. Anthropometric and laboratory measures were taken at baseline and 15-weeks. Data Analysis. Linear regression assessed the association between OC use and study variables at baseline, and the change in study variables from baseline to 15-weeks. Logistic regression assessed the association between OC use and CVD risk. Each analysis was also stratified by race/ethnicity. Results. At baseline, OC users had higher total cholesterol (p<.0005) and were above cholesterol risk cut points for CVD (OR=4.3, 95% CI=2.4-7.7) compared to non-users. At baseline, OC use was also associated with higher diastolic blood pressure (p=.018) compared to non-users, primarily in non-Hispanic whites (p=.007). OC use was associated with lower blood glucose compared to non-users in Hispanics only (p=.008). OC use was associated with absolute change in diastolic blood pressure (p=.044) and total cholesterol (p=.003). There was evidence that OC use may affect individuals differently based on race/ethnicity for certain obesity and CVD risk factors. Conclusions. OC users and non-users responded similarly to a 15-week cardiovascular exercise program. Exceptions included a greater change in diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol among NHW and Hispanic OC users compared to non-users after exercise intervention. At baseline, OC use was associated with diastolic blood pressure and was most strongly associated with increased levels of total cholesterol. OC users were at greater risk of having total cholesterol above CVD risk cut points than non-users.
Robinson, Cassie, "Impact of oral contraceptives on weight, body composition, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in women age 18–30 years participating in a 15-week exercise program" (2008). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1454316.