Relevant drug to drug interactions between itraconazole and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected patients on maintenance therapy for disseminated histoplasmosis
Objective. Itraconazole is recommended life-long for preventing relapse of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients. I sought to determine if serum itraconazole levels are affected by the type of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (NNRTI or PI) being taken concomitantly to treat HIV. Design. Retrospective cohort. Methods. De-identified data were used from an IRB-approved parent study which identified patients on HAART and maintenance itraconazole for confirmed disseminated histoplasmosis between January 2003 and December 2006. Available itraconazole blood levels were abstracted as well as medications taken by each patient at the time of the blood tests. Mean itraconazole levels were compared using the student's t-test. Results. 11 patients met study criteria. Patient characteristics were: median age 36, 91% men, 18% white, 18% black, 55% Hispanic and 9% Asians, median CD4 cell count 120 cells/mm3. 14 blood levels were available for analysis—8 on PI, 4 on NNRTI and 2 on both. 8/8 itraconazole levels obtained while taking concomitant PI were therapeutic (>0.4 μg/mL) in contrast to 0/4 obtained while taking NNRTI. Two patients switched from NNRTI to PI and reached therapeutic levels. Mean levels on NNRTI (0.05 μg/mL, s.d. 0.0) and on PI (2.45 μg/mL, s.d. 0.21) for these two patients were compared via a paired t-test (t = 16.00, d.f. = 1, P = 0.04). Remaining patient levels were compared using an unpaired t-test. Mean itraconazole on concomitant PI (n = 6) was 1.37 μg/mL (s.d. 0.74), while the mean on concomitant NNRTI was 0.05 μg/mL (s.d. 0.0), t = 2.39, d.f. = 6, P = 0.05. Conclusions. Co-administration of NNRTI and itraconazole results in significant decreases in itraconazole blood levels, likely by inducing the CYP3A4 enzyme system. Itraconazole drug levels should be monitored in patients on concomitant NNRTI. PI-based HAART may be preferred over NNRTI-based HAART when using itraconazole to treat HIV-infected patients with disseminated histoplasmosis.
Pharmacology|Health sciences|Public health
Evans, Richard T, "Relevant drug to drug interactions between itraconazole and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected patients on maintenance therapy for disseminated histoplasmosis" (2008). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1454369.