Case-control study of factors associated with virologic failure in HIV-infected children on HAART in Botswana, a developing African country
According to the United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, 2008), in 2007 about 67 per cent of all HIV-infected patients in the world were in Sub-Saharan Africa, with 35% of new infections and 38% of the AIDS deaths occurring in Southern Africa. Globally, the number of children younger than 15 years of age infected with HIV increased from 1.6 million in 2001 to 2.0 million in 2007 and almost 90% of these were in Sub-Saharan Africa. (UNAIDS, 2008).^ Both clinical and laboratory monitoring of children on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) are important and necessary to optimize outcomes. Laboratory monitoring of HIV viral load and genotype resistance testing, which are important in patient follow-up to optimize treatment success, are both generally expensive and beyond the healthcare budgets of most developing countries. This is especially true for the impoverished Sub-Saharan African nations. It is therefore important to identify those factors that are associated with virologic failure in HIV-infected Sub-Saharan African children. This will inform practitioners in these countries so that they can predict which patients are more likely to develop virologic failure and therefore target the limited laboratory monitoring budgets towards these at-risk patients. The objective of this study was to examine those factors that are associated with virologic failure in HIV-infected children taking Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy in Botswana, a developing Sub-Saharan African country. We examined these factors in a Case-Control study using medical records of HIV-infected children and adolescents on HAART at the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Center of Excellence (BBCCCOE) in Gaborone, Botswana. Univariate and Multivariate Regression Analyses were performed to identify predictors of virologic failure in these children.^ The study population comprised of 197 cases (those with virologic failure) and 544 controls (those with virologic success) with ages ranging from 3 months to 16 years at baseline. Poor adherence (pill count <95% on at least 3 consecutive occasions) was the strongest independent predictor of virologic failure (adjusted OR = 269.97, 95% CI = 104.13 to 699.92; P < 0.001). Other independent predictors of virologic failure identified were: First Line NNRTI with Nevirapine (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.19 to7.54; P = 0.020), Baseline HIV-1 Viral Load >750,000/ml (OR = 257, 95% CI = 1.47 to 8.63; P = 0.005), Positive History of PMTCT (OR = 11.65, 95% CI = 3.04-44.57; P < 0.001), Multiple Care-givers (>=3) (OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.06 to 6.19; P = 0.036) and Residence in a Village (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.36 to 5.97; P = 0.005).^ The results of this study may help to improve virologic outcomes and reduce the costs of caring for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. ^ Keywords: Virologic Failure, Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy, Sub-Saharan Africa, Children, Adherence.^
Health Sciences, Epidemiology
Marape, Marape, "Case-control study of factors associated with virologic failure in HIV-infected children on HAART in Botswana, a developing African country" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1462457.