Sex disparities among cases of hepatocellular carcinoma
Though Hepatocellular Carcinoma is the fifth most common type of cancer, it is the third most deadly and incidence is on the rise. The disease, however, does not affect men and women at similar incidence rates. This thesis was designed to compare the differences in male and female incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and other common cancer types through age standardized sex ratios for select countries, world-wide. Men were demonstrated an increase in incidence of liver cancer about five to ten years before women in Gharbiah Governorate. Results showed that males had excess incident cases, in decreasing magnitudes, of esophageal, bladder, lung, mouth, liver, stomach, kidney, rectal, lymphoid leukemia, pancreas, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and colon cancers. There was a slight excess of female gallbladder cancer incidence compared to men, while many more women than men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Among different race/ethnicities in the United States, sex ratios resembled US ratios more than those in their countries of origin; this was seen most significantly amongst Hispanic Whites. Sex ratios were generally wider in more developed countries, though more research is needed to determine if this is consistent for all cancer types and countries. Many facets of the disproportionate sex ratios need further exploration, including areas of hormone levels and cultural or lifestyle variances that may lead to differences among men and women and developed and developing countries.
Morrison, Fritha, "Sex disparities among cases of hepatocellular carcinoma" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1462458.