Host risk factors for rifamycin-resistant clostridium difficile infection: A case control study

Yashoo Yadav, The University of Texas School of Public Health


Objective. To evaluate the host risk factors associated with rifamycin-resistant Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection in hospitalized patients compared to rifamycin-susceptible C.diff infection. Background. C. diff is the most common definable cause of nosocomial diarrhea affecting elderly hospitalized patients taking antibiotics for prolonged durations. The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile associated disease is now changing with the reports of a new hypervirulent strain causing hospital outbreaks. This new strain is associated with increased disease severity and mortality. The conventional therapy for C. diff includes metronidazole and vancomycin but high recurrence rates and treatment failures are now becoming a major concern. Rifamycin antibiotics are being developed as a new therapeutic option to treat C. diff infection after their efficacy was established in a few in vivo and in vitro studies. There are some recent studies that report an association between the hypervirulent strain and emerging rifamycin resistance. These findings assess the need for clinical studies to better understand the efficacy of rifamycin drugs against C. diff. Methods. This is a hospital-based, matched case-control study using de-identified data drawn from two prospective cohort studies involving C. diff patients at St Luke's Hospital. The C. diff isolates from these patients are screened for rifamycin resistance using agar dilution methods for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) as part of Dr Zhi-Dong Jiang's study. Twenty-four rifamycin-rifamycin resistant C. diff cases were identified and matched with one rifamycin susceptible C. diff control on the basis of ± 10 years of age and hospitalization 30 days before or after the case. De-identified data for the 48 subjects was obtained from Dr Kevin Garey's clinical study at St Luke's Hospital enrolling C. diff patients. It was reviewed to gather information about host risk factors, outcome variables and relevant clinical characteristic. Results. Medical diagnosis at the time of admission (p = 0.0281) and history of chemotherapy (p = 0.022) were identified as a significant risk factor while hospital stay ranging from 1 week to 1 month and artificial feeding were identified as an important outcome variable (p = 0.072 and p = 0.081 respectively). Horn's Index assessing the severity of underlying illness and duration of antibiotics for cases and controls showed no significant difference. Conclusion. The study was a small project designed to identify host risk factors and understand the clinical implications of rifamycin-resistance. The study was underpowered and a larger sample size is needed to validate the results.

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Recommended Citation

Yadav, Yashoo, "Host risk factors for rifamycin-resistant clostridium difficile infection: A case control study" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1462464.