A retrospective cohort study of the duration of hepatitis B vaccine immunity and associated factors in pediatric dialysis patients
Dialysis patients are at high risk for hepatitis B infection, which is a serious but preventable disease. Prevention strategies include the administration of the hepatitis B vaccine. Dialysis patients have been noted to have a poor immune response to the vaccine and lose immunity more rapidly. The long term immunogenicity of the hepatitis B vaccine has not been well defined in pediatric dialysis patients especially if administered during infancy as a routine childhood immunization. Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the median duration of hepatitis B immunity and to study the effect of vaccination timing and other cofactors on the duration of hepatitis B immunity in pediatric dialysis patients. Methods. Duration of hepatitis B immunity was determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Comparison of stratified survival analysis was performed using log-rank analysis. Multivariate analysis by Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for the effect of timing of vaccine administration and other covariates on the duration of hepatitis B immunity. Results. 193 patients (163 incident patients) had complete data available for analysis. Mean age was 11.2±5.8 years and mean ESRD duration was 59.3±97.8 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the total median overall duration of immunity (since the time of the primary vaccine series) was 112.7 months (95% CI: 96.6, 124.4), whereas the median overall duration of immunity for incident patients was 106.3 months (95% CI: 93.93, 124.44). Incident patients had a median dialysis duration of hepatitis B immunity equal to 37.1 months (95% CI: 24.16, 72.26). Multivariate adjusted analysis showed that there was a significant difference between patients based on the timing of hepatitis B vaccination administration (p<0.001). Patients immunized after the start of dialysis had a hazard ratio of 6.13 (2.87, 13.08) for loss of hepatitis B immunity compared to patients immunized as infants (p<0.001). Conclusion. This study confirms that patients immunized after dialysis onset have an overall shorter duration of hepatitis B immunity as measured by hepatitis B antibody titers and after the start of dialysis, protective antibody titer levels in pediatric dialysis patients wane rapidly compared to healthy children.
Sheth, Rita D, "A retrospective cohort study of the duration of hepatitis B vaccine immunity and associated factors in pediatric dialysis patients" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1463604.