The burden of parainfluenza virus infection in patients with hematological malignancy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients in the absence of active immunization and approved therapy: The role of infection control
Background. Community respiratory viruses, mainly RSV and influenza, are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with leukemia and HSCT recipients. The data on impact of PIV infections in these patients is lacking. Methods. We reviewed the records of patients with leukemia and HSCT recipients who developed PIV infection from Oct'02–Nov'07 to determine the outcome of such infections. Results. We identified 200 patients with PIV infections including 80(40%) patients with leukemia and 120 (60%) recipients of HSCT. Median age was 55 y (17-84 y). As compared to HSCT recipients, patients with leukemia had higher APACHE II score (14 vs. 10, p<0.0001); were more likely to have ANC<500 (48% vs. 10%, p<0.0001) and ALC<200 (45% vs. 23.5%, p=0.02). PIV type III was the commonest isolate (172/200, 86%). Most patients 141/200 (70%) had upper respiratory infection (URI), and 59/200 (30%) had pneumonia at presentation. Patients in leukemia group were more likely to require hospitalization due to PIV infection (77% vs. 36% p=0.0001) and were more likely to progress to pneumonia (61% vs. 39%, p=0.002). Fifty five patients received aerosolized ribavirin and/or IVIG. There were no significant differences in the duration of symptoms, length of hospitalization, progression to pneumonia or mortality between the treated verses untreated group. The clinical outcome was unknown in 13 (6%) patients. Complete resolution of symptoms was noted in 91% (171/187) patients and 9% (16/187) patients died. Mortality rate was 17% (16/95) among patients who had PIV pneumonia, with no significant difference between leukemia and HSCT group (16% vs. 17%). The cause of death was acute respiratory failure and/or multi-organ failure in (13, 81%) patients. Conclusions. Patients with leukemia and HSCT could be at high risk for serious PIV infections including PIV pneumonia. Treatment with aerosolized ribavirin and/or IVIG may not have significant effect on the outcome of PIV infection.
Hanmod, Santosh S, "The burden of parainfluenza virus infection in patients with hematological malignancy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients in the absence of active immunization and approved therapy: The role of infection control" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1470186.