Proliferation index in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: Relation to estrogen, progesterone and HER2/neu receptors
Background. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most prevalent precursor to invasive breast cancer (IBC), the second leading cause of death in women in the United States. The three most important prognostic markers for IBC are Estrogen receptor (ER), Progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu. The four groups (IBC) defined as (1) ER and/or PR positive and HER2/neu negative, (2) ER and/or PR positive and HER2/neu positive (3) ER and/or PR negative and HER2/neu positive and (4) negative for all three of these receptors (Triple negative). However, they have not been well studied in DCIS. This is an exploratory study with a primary objective to examine the prevalence of ER, PR, and HER2/neu in DCIS, to explore if the defined groups of IBC occur in DCIS and to consider the biological relationship between these four groups and the proliferative activity of the tumor. A secondary goal of this study is to examine the relationship between grade and proliferative activity. Methods. Using immunohistochemistry, I have measured Ki-67, ER, PR and HER2/neu positivity for a series of cases of DCIS. Results. 20 ER and/or PR positive and HER2/neu negative (50%) with average PI of 0.05, 7 ER and/or PR positive and HER2/neu positive (17.5%) with average PI of 0.14, 10 ER and/or PR negative and HER2/neu positive (25%) with average PI of 0.18, and three triple negative (7.5%) with average PI of 0.18. ER and/or PR positive and HER2/neu positive group has the highest PI (p<0.001). Further, the ER and/or PR positive and HER2/neu positive group show a linear relationship between PI and average ER/PR positivity (R=0.6). PI increases with higher grades. Conclusion. PI appears to depend upon the average fraction of positive ER/PR tumor cells, possibly with a synergistic dependence when HER2/neu is positive. If ER/PR is negative, then both HER2/neu positive and the triple negative cases appear to cluster around an average PI that is higher than the average PI in HER2/neu negative ER/PR positive negative cases. In the triple negative tumors there must be another driver of proliferation.
Kasi Loknath Kumar, Anup Kumar, "Proliferation index in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: Relation to estrogen, progesterone and HER2/neu receptors" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1470187.