The influence of socioeconomic status on the relationship between diabetes and amputations: A systematic review of the literature
This paper synthesizes the current knowledge available regarding the impact of socioeconomic status on diabetes and amputations. In September 2009, searches in the OVID Medline and PubMed databases were performed using keywords associated with race/ethnicity, educational level, insurance status, veteran status, low income, diabetes, and lower extremity amputation. Articles published between 1996 and the search date were used. The pertinent articles were analyzed, summarized, and synthesized. The majority of the articles agreed that African American, American Indian, and Latino minorities experience significantly higher rates of diabetes-related lower extremity amputation (LEA) when compared to whites. Few articles suggested that the disparity experienced by minorities and others of low SES was due to biology; most articles link it to a combination of lower income, lower educational attainment, uninsured or underinsured status, and a greater prevalence of detrimental health behaviors such as smoking. These, in turn, are linked to decreased knowledge of self-care, delayed health care seeking, delayed diagnoses and treatment, discrimination, and low quality health care. Interventions focused on patient education, established regimens of treatment, foot care, and control of diabetes have been shown to be effective, although none have lowered the rate of diabetes-related LEA to rates found in the general population.
Chen, Nancy Grace, "The influence of socioeconomic status on the relationship between diabetes and amputations: A systematic review of the literature" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1470195.