A case-control study of medication-associated acute kidney injuries in hospitalized pediatric patients

Brady Scott Moffett, The University of Texas School of Public Health


Acute kidney Injury (AKI) in hospitalized pediatric patients can be a significant event that can result in increased patient morbidity and mortality. The incidence of medication associated AKI is increasing in the pediatric population. Currently, there are no data to quantify the risks of developing AKI for various potentially nephrotoxic medications. The primary objective of this study was to determine the odds of nephrotoxic medication exposure in hospitalized pediatric patients with AKI as defined by the pediatric modified pRIFLE criteria. A retrospective case-control study was performed with patients that developed AKI, as defined by the pediatric pRIFLE criteria, as cases, and patients without AKI as controls that were matched by age category, gender, and disease state. Patients between 1 day and 18 years of age, admitted to a non-intensive care unit at Texas Children's Hospital for at least 3 days, and had at least 2 serum creatinine values drawn were included. Patient data was analyzed with Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi square analysis, ANOVA, and conditional logistic regression. Out of 1,660 patients identified for inclusion, 561 (33.8%) patients had AKI, and 357 cases were matched with 357 controls to become pairs. Of the cases, 441 were category 'R', 117 category 'I', 3 patients were category 'F', and no patient died. Cases with AKI were significantly younger than controls (p < 0.05). Significantly longer hospital length of stays, increased hospital costs, and exposure to more nephrotoxic medications for a longer period of time were characteristics of patients with AKI compared to patient without AKI. Patients with AKI had greater odds of exposure to one or more nephrotoxic medication than patients without AKI (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.4, p < 0.05). Percent changes in estimated creatinine clearance (eCCl) from baseline were greatest with increased number of nephrotoxic medication exposures. Exposure to potentially nephrotoxic medications may place pediatric patients at greater risk of acute kidney injury. Multiple nephrotoxic medication exposure may confer a greater risk of development of acute kidney injury, and result in increased hospital costs and patient morbidity. Due to the high percentage of patients that were exposed to potentially nephrotoxic medications, monitoring and medication selection strategies may need to be altered to prevent or minimize risk.

Subject Area

Medicine|Pharmacy sciences

Recommended Citation

Moffett, Brady Scott, "A case-control study of medication-associated acute kidney injuries in hospitalized pediatric patients" (2010). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1474713.