A movement from traditional malarial chemoprophylaxis to the use of intermittent preventive treatment as a method of protection for children diagnosed with sickle-cell disease: A proposal for consideration based on a systematic review of the literature
Approximately 200,000 African children are born with sickle-cell anemia each year. Research has shown that individuals with hemoglobin disorders, particularly sickle-cell anemia, have increased susceptibility to contracting malaria. Currently it is recommended that patients diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia undergo malaria chemoprophylaxis in order to decrease their chances of malarial infection. However, studies have shown that routine administration of these drugs increases the risk of drug resistance and could possibly impair the development of naturally acquired immunity. Clinical trials have shown intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) to be an effective method of protection against malaria. The objective of this report was to review previously conducted clinical trials that study the effects of intermittent preventive treatment on malaria and anemia in infants and children. Based on the review, implications for its appropriateness as a protective measure against malaria for infants and children diagnosed with sickle-cell disease were provided. The 18 studies reviewed were randomized controlled trials that focused on IPT’s effect on malaria (7 studies), anemia (1 study), or both (8 studies). In addition to these 16, one study looks at IPT’s effect on molecular resistance to malaria, and another study is a follow-up to a study in order to review IPT’s potential to cause a rebound effect. The 18 th study in this review specifically looks at IPT’s protective efficacy in children with SCA. The studies in this report were restricted to randomized controlled trials that have been performed from 2000 to 2010. Reports on anemia were included to illustrate possible added benefits of the use of IPT specific to burdens associated with SCA other than malaria susceptibility. The outcomes of these studies address several issues of concern involving the administration of IPT: protective efficacy (in reference to age, seasonal versus perennial malaria regions, and overall effectiveness against malaria and anemia), drug resistance, drug rebound effect, drug side-effects, and long-term effects. Overall, these showed that IPT has a significant level of protective efficacy against malaria and/or anemia in children. More specifically, the IPT study evaluating children diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia proved IPT to be a more effective method of protection than traditional chemoprophylaxis.
Public Health Education
Peterson, Courtney L, "A movement from traditional malarial chemoprophylaxis to the use of intermittent preventive treatment as a method of protection for children diagnosed with sickle-cell disease: A proposal for consideration based on a systematic review of the literature" (2010). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1475362.