Antibiotic susceptibility and resistance among bacterial enteropathogens isolated from international travelers to Mexico, Guatemala, and India, 2006–2008
The incidence rates of travelers' diarrhea (TD) have remained unchanged for the last fifty years. More recently, there have been increasing recommendations for self-initiated therapy and even prophylactic therapy for TD. There is no recent data on the in vitro activities of commonly used antibiotics for TD therapy and whether there have been any changes in susceptibilities over the last ten years. 456 enteropathogens were isolated from adult travelers to Mexico, India, and Guatemala between the years 2006 to 2008. MICs were determined for 10 different antimicrobials by the agar dilution method. Traditional antibiotics such as ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline continue to show high levels of resistance. Current first line antibiotic agents including fluoroquinolones and azithromycin had significantly higher MICs when compared to 10 years ago and MIC90 levels were beyond the CSLI cutoffs for resistance. There were significant geographical differences in resistance patterns when comparing Central America with India. Entertoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates were more resistant to ciprofloxacin (p=0.023), and levofloxacin (p=0.0078) in India; whereas, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) isolates from Central America showed more resistance. When compared to MICs of isolates 10 years prior, there was a four to ten-fold increase in MIC90s for ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and azithromycin for both ETEC and EAEC. There were no significant changes in rifaximin MICs over the last ten years, which makes it a promising agent for TD. Rising MICs over time implicate the need for continuous surveillance of susceptibility patterns worldwide and for geography specific recommendations in TD therapy.
Microbiology|Epidemiology|South Asian Studies
Ouyang, Jeannette, "Antibiotic susceptibility and resistance among bacterial enteropathogens isolated from international travelers to Mexico, Guatemala, and India, 2006–2008" (2010). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1475793.