A new combined endpoint using U-statistic in analysis in clinical trials
Common endpoints can be divided into two categories. One is dichotomous endpoints which take only fixed values (most of the time two values). The other is continuous endpoints which can be any real number between two specified values. Choices of primary endpoints are critical in clinical trials. If we only use dichotomous endpoints, the power could be underestimated. If only continuous endpoints are chosen, we may not obtain expected sample size due to occurrence of some significant clinical events. Combined endpoints are used in clinical trials to give additional power. However, current combined endpoints or composite endpoints in cardiovascular disease clinical trials or most clinical trials are endpoints that combine either dichotomous endpoints (total mortality + total hospitalization), or continuous endpoints (risk score). Our present work applied U-statistic to combine one dichotomous endpoint and one continuous endpoint, which has three different assessments and to calculate the sample size and test the hypothesis to see if there is any treatment effect. It is especially useful when some patients cannot provide the most precise measurement due to medical contraindication or some personal reasons. Results show that this method has greater power then the analysis using continuous endpoints alone.
Jing, Kaiyan, "A new combined endpoint using U-statistic in analysis in clinical trials" (2010). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1479758.