A systematic review of clostridium difficile infection in patients with iatrogenic immunesuppression
Background: Incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased dramatically in the past decade and is the most frequent cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The outcome of infection may range from mild diarrhea to life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis depending on the immunological response of the host, which is highly compromised in this special population that includes bone marrow transplant (BMT), solid organ transplant (SOT) and cancer patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy. Objectives: We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the incidence rates of CDI and the time to onset of infection in patients with iatrogenic immune suppression. Methods: Original studies were identified through an extensive search of electronic databases including PubMed, Ovid Medline (R), RefWorks and Biological Abstracts and their references. The overall incidence rate of CDI in the immune suppressed population was calculated using random effects model and their 95% confidence interval was derived. Differences in the incidence of CDI and time to onset of infection were calculated between the groups and within the groups. Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot. Results: Twenty nine published articles involving 7,424 patients met the eligibility requirements. The overall incidence of CDI in the immune suppressed population is 11.1% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 9.2–13.4%). The incidence of CDI was higher in SOT patients (14.2%, 95% CI: 6.8–21.5%); (p-value-0.022) and in cancer patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy (11.4%, 95% CI: 8.4–15.4%); (p = 0.042) than in BMT patients (10.5%, 95% CI: 7.9–13.1%). In a subgroup analysis of BMT population, the incidence of CDI is significantly higher in patients who received allogeneic BMT (15.1%, 95% CI: 11.2–20.0%; p value <0.0001). Similarly, in the SOT population, the incidence of CDI was higher in patients who underwent liver transplantation (11.0%, 95% CI: 5.6–20.3%); (p= 0.0672). The median time to onset of infection was shorter in BMT patients (p=0.0025). Conclusions: It is evident from the combined analysis of these 29 published studies that the incidence of CDI in the immune suppressed population is higher. However, early diagnosis and treatment of CDI will help reduce the morbidity and mortality due to CDI in this special population.
Harold, Stephen A, "A systematic review of clostridium difficile infection in patients with iatrogenic immunesuppression" (2011). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1497577.