The role of environmental tobacco smoke in the development and exacerbation of asthma among children in developing countries: A systematic review
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important indoor air pollutant associated with adverse effects on the respiratory health of the general population, especially people with asthma. ETS consists mainly of sidestream smoke from burning cigarettes and a smaller quantity of mainstream smoke which is exhaled by the smoker. At least one out of every three children is frequently exposed to ETS. This paper reviewed the literature for studies on the role of ETS in the development and exacerbation of asthma among children in developing countries, specifically the low and middle income countries from the year 1980 to the present. The databases searched in this systematic review were: Ovid Medline; PubMed (National Library of Medicine); and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) (EBSCOhost). Out of a total of 197 articles initially identified, only four studies (two from China, one from Macedonia and one from Brazil) were rated by two independent raters as being of high quality, and were selected for final abstraction, synthesis and evidence weighting. Results from these four studies suggests that, in developing countries, ETS exposure is associated with childhood asthma, and that asthma prevalence increases with an increase in the amount and duration of exposure to ETS. Similarly, exposure to ETS is associated with persistent cough, current night dry cough, and exacerbation of asthma symptoms. Therefore, as is the case in developed nations, there is suggestive evidence in the literature that ETS exposure plays substantial role in the development and/or exacerbation of asthma among children in developing countries. To decrease the likelihood of new asthma development, enhance asthma control, and reduce the rate of medical service utilization in children exposed to ETS, smoking should be eliminated at home and in public places.
Nnoli, Nnamdi C, "The role of environmental tobacco smoke in the development and exacerbation of asthma among children in developing countries: A systematic review" (2011). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1497691.