Is there an association between choline/betaine dietary intake and lung cancer?
Choline and betaine are important methyl donors that contribute to protein and phospholipid synthesis and DNA methylation. They can either be obtained through diet or synthesized de novo. Evidence from human and animal research indicates that choline metabolic pathways may be activated during a variety of diseases, including cancer. Studies have been conducted to investigate the role of dietary intake of choline and betaine on cancers, but results vary among studies by cancer types, and no such study had been conducted for lung cancer. We conducted a case-control study to explore the association between choline and betaine dietary intake and lung cancer. A total of 2807 cases and 2919 controls were included in the study. After adjusting for total calorie intake, age, sex, race and smoking status, multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed a significant negative association between choline/betaine intake and lung cancer. Specifically, we observed that higher choline intake was associated with reduced lung cancer odds, and the association did not differ significantly by smoking status. A similar negative trend was observed in the association between betaine intake and lung cancer after adjusting for total calorie intake, age, sex, smoking status, race, and pack-years of smoking. However, this association was strongly affected by smoking. No significant association was observed with increased betaine intake and lung cancer among never smokers, but higher betaine intake was strongly associated with reduced lung cancer odds among smokers, and lower odds ratios were observed among current smokers than among former smokers. Our results suggest that high intake of choline may be protective for lung cancer independent of smoking status, while high betaine intake may mitigate the adverse effect of smoking on lung cancer, and help prevent lung cancer among smokers.
Ying, Jun, "Is there an association between choline/betaine dietary intake and lung cancer?" (2011). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1507234.