The epidemiology of dengue among children less than 18 months of age in Puerto Rico, 1999–2011
Between 1999 and 2011, 4,178 suspected dengue cases in children less than 18 months of age were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Dengue Branch in Puerto Rico. Of the 4,178, 813 were determined to be laboratory-positive and 737 laboratory-negative. Those remaining were either laboratory-indeterminate, not processed or positive for Leptospira . On average, 63 laboratory-positive cases were reported per year. Laboratory-positive cases had a median age of 8.5 months. Among these cases, the median age for those with dengue fever was 8.7 months and 7.9 months for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Clinical signs and symptoms indicative of dengue were greatest among laboratory-positive cases and included fever, rash, thrombocytopenia, bleeding manifestations, and petechiae. The most common symptoms among patients who were laboratory-negative were fever, nasal congestion, cough, diarrhea, and vomiting. Using the 1997 WHO guidelines, nearly 50% of the laboratory-positive cases met the case definition for dengue fever, and 61 of these were further determined to meet the case definition for dengue hemorrhagic fever. In comparison, 15% of laboratory-negative cases met the case definition for dengue fever and less than 1% for dengue hemorrhagic fever. None of the laboratory-positive or laboratory-negative cases met the criteria for dengue shock syndrome.
Hause, Anne M, "The epidemiology of dengue among children less than 18 months of age in Puerto Rico, 1999–2011" (2012). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1515589.