Does prior receipt of a rifamycin antibiotic increase the risk of acquiring an infection due to a rifamycin-resistant strain of Clostridium difficile?
Objectives. To examine the association between prior rifamycin exposure and later development of C. difficile infection (CDI) caused by a rifamycin-resistant strain of C. difficile , and to compare patient characteristics between rifamycin-resistant strains of C. difficile infection and rifamycin-susceptible strains of C. difficile infection. Methods. A case-control study was performed in a large university-affiliated hospital in Houston, Texas. Study subjects were patients with C. difficile infection acquired at the hospital with culture-positive isolates of C. difficile with which in vitro rifaximin and rifampin susceptibility has been tested. Prior use of rifamycin, demographic and clinical characteristics was compared between case and control groups using univariate statistics. Results. A total of 49 C. difficile strains met the study inclusion criteria for rifamycin-resistant case isolates, and a total of 98 rifamycin-susceptible C. difficile strains were matched to case isolates. Of 49 case isolates, 12 (4%) were resistant to rifampin alone, 12 (4%) were resistant to rifaximin alone, and 25 (9%) were resistant to both rifampin and rifaximin. There was no significant association between prior rifamycin use and rifamycin-resistant CDI. Cases and controls did not differ according to demographic characteristics, length of hospital stay, known risk factors of CDI, type of CDI-onset, and pre-infection medical co-morbidities. Our results on 37 rifaximin-resistant isolates (MIC ≥32 &mgr;g/ml) showed more than half of isolates had a rifaximin MIC ≥256 &mgr;g/ml, and out of these isolates, 19 isolates had MICs ≥1024 &mgr;g/ml. Conclusions. Using a large series of rifamycin-non-susceptible isolates, no patient characteristics were independently associated with rifamycin-resistant CDI. This data suggests that factors beyond previous use of rifamycin antibiotics are primary risk factors for rifamycin-resistant C. difficile.
Huang, Jamie S, "Does prior receipt of a rifamycin antibiotic increase the risk of acquiring an infection due to a rifamycin-resistant strain of Clostridium difficile?" (2012). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1515591.