Rifaximin-mediated changes to the epithelial cell proteome: 2-D gel analysis
Diarrhea remains a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Over 4 million children die of diarrhea annually. Although antibiotics can be used as prophylaxis or for treatment of diarrhea, concern remains over antibiotic resistance. Rifaximin is a semi-synthetic rifamycin derivative that can be used to treat symptoms of infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth of the small bowel, pouchitis, and fulminant ulcerative colitis. Rifaximin is of particular interest because it is poorly adsorbed in the intestines, shows no indication of inducing bacterial resistance, and has minimal effect on intestinal flora. In order to better understand how rifaximin functions, we sought to compare the protein expression profile of cells pretreated with rifaximin, as compared to cells treated with acetone, rifamycin (control antibiotic), or media (untreated). 2-D gel electrophoresis identified 38 protein spots that were up- or down-regulated by over 2-fold in rifaximin treated cells compared to controls. 16 of these spots were down-regulated, including keratin, annexin A5, intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase, histone h4, and histone-binding protein RbbP4. 22 spots were up-regulated, including heat shock protein HSP 90 alpha, alkaline phosphatase, and fascin. Many of the identified proteins are associated with cell structure and cytoskeleton, transcription and translation, and cellular metabolism. A better understanding of the functionality of rifaximin will identify additional potential uses for rifaximin and determine for whom the drug is best suited.
Schrodt, Caroline, "Rifaximin-mediated changes to the epithelial cell proteome: 2-D gel analysis" (2012). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1515605.