Elevated cystatin C & heart failure prognosis a systematic review
Renal insufficiency is one of the most common co-morbidities present in heart failure (HF) patients. It has significant impact on mortality and adverse outcomes. Cystatin C has been shown as a promising marker of renal function. A systematic review of all the published studies evaluating the prognostic role of cystatin C in both acute and chronic HF was undertaken. A comprehensive literature search was conducted involving various terms of 'cystatin C' and 'heart failure' in Pubmed medline and Embase libraries using Scopus database. A total of twelve observational studies were selected in this review for detailed assessment. Six studies were performed in acute HF patients and six were performed in chronic HF patients. Cystatin C was used as a continuous variable, as quartiles/tertiles or as a categorical variable in these studies. Different mortality endpoints were reported in these studies. All twelve studies demonstrated a significant association of cystatin C with mortality. This association was found to be independent of other baseline risk factors that are known to impact HF outcomes. In both acute and chronic HF, cystatin C was not only a strong predictor of outcomes but also a better prognostic marker than creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A combination of cystatin C with other biomarkers such as N terminal pro B- type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) or creatinine also improved the risk stratification. The plausible mechanisms are renal dysfunction, inflammation or a direct effect of cystatin C on ventricular remodeling. Either alone or in combination, cystatin C is a better, accurate and a reliable biomarker for HF prognosis.
Bavishi, Chirag, "Elevated cystatin C & heart failure prognosis a systematic review" (2012). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1516278.