Correlation of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus in Harris County, Texas from 2009 through 2010 using Geographic Information Systems
A population based ecological study was conducted to identify areas with a high number of TB and HIV new diagnoses in Harris County, Texas from 2009 through 2010 by applying Geographic Information Systems to determine whether distinguished spatial patterns exist at the census tract level through the use of exploratory mapping. As of 2010, Texas has the fourth highest occurrence of new diagnoses of HIV/AIDS and TB. The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) has identified HIV infected persons as a high risk population for TB in Harris County. In order to explore this relationship further, GIS was utilized to identify spatial trends. The specific aims were to map TB and HIV new diagnoses rates and spatially identify hotspots and high value clusters at the census tract level. The potential association between HIV and TB was analyzed using spatial autocorrelation and linear regression analysis. The spatial statistics used were ArcGIS 9.3 Hotspot Analysis and Cluster and Outlier Analysis. Spatial autocorrelation was determined through Global Moran's I and linear regression analysis. Hotspots and clusters of TB and HIV are located within the same spatial areas of Harris County. The areas with high value clusters and hotspots for each infection are located within the central downtown area of the city of Houston. There is an additional hotspot area of TB located directly north of I-10 and a hotspot area of HIV northeast of Interstate 610. The Moran's I Index of 0.17 (Z score = 3.6 standard deviations, p-value = 0.01) suggests that TB is statistically clustered with a less than 1% chance that this pattern is due to random chance. However, there were a high number of features with no neighbors which may invalidate the statistical properties of the test. Linear regression analysis indicated that HIV new diagnoses rates (β=−0.006, SE=0.147, p=0.970) and census tracts (β=0.000, SE=0.000, p=0.866) were not significant predictors of TB new diagnoses rates. Mapping products indicate that census tracts with overlapping hotspots and high value clusters of TB and HIV should be a targeted focus for prevention efforts, most particularly within central Harris County. While the statistical association was not confirmed, evidence suggests that there is a relationship between HIV and TB within this two year period.
Watkins, Kellie L, "Correlation of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus in Harris County, Texas from 2009 through 2010 using Geographic Information Systems" (2012). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI1529236.