Signaling pathways in the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of the human glutathione S -transferase P1 gene
The human glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) protein is an endogenous inhibitor of c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and an important phase II detoxification enzyme. Recent identification of a cAMP response element (CRE) in the 5 ′-region of the human GSTP1 gene and several putative phosphorylation sites for the Ser/Thr protein kinases, including, cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs), protein kinases C (PKCs), and JNKs in the GSTP1 protein raised the possibility that signaling pathways may play an important role in the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of GSTP1 gene. This study examined (a) whether the signaling pathway mediated by CAMP, via the GSTP1 CRE, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the GSTP1 gene, (b) whether signaling pathways mediated by the Ser/Thr protein kinases (PKAs, PKCs, and JNKs) induce post-translational modification, viz. phosphorylation of the GSTP1 protein, and (c) whether such phosphorylation of the GSTP1 protein alters its functions in metabolism and in JNK signaling. The first major finding in this study is the establishment of the human GSTP1 gene as a novel CAMP responsive gene in which transcription is activated via an interaction between PKA activated CRE binding protein-1 (CREB-1) and the CRE in the 5′-regulatory region. The second major finding in this study is the observation that the GSTP1 protein undergoes phosphorylation and functionally activated by second messenger-activated protein kinases, PKA and PKC, in tumor cells with activated signaling pathways. Following phosphorylation by PKA or PKC, the catalytic activity of the GSTP1 protein was significantly enhanced, as indicated by a decrease in its Km (2- to 3.6-fold) and an increase in Kcat/ Km (1.6- to 2.5-fold) for glutathione. Given the frequent over-expression of GSTP1 and the aberrant PKA/PKC signaling cascade observed in tumors, these findings suggest that phosphorylation of GSTP1 may contribute to the malignant progression and drug-resistant phenotype of these tumors. The third major finding in this study is that the GSTP1 protein, an inhibitor of JNKs, undergoes significant phosphorylation in tumor cells with activated JNK signaling pathway and in those under oxidative stress. Following phosphorylation by JNK, the ability of GSTP1 to inhibit JNK downstream function, i.e. c-jun phosphorylation, was significantly enhanced, suggesting a feedback mechanism of regulation of JNK-mediated cellular signaling. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Molecular biology|Cellular biology|Oncology
Lo, Hui-Wen, "Signaling pathways in the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of the human glutathione S -transferase P1 gene" (2002). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3046059.