Calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria during apoptosis in prostate cancer
Previous studies have implicated Ca2+ fluxes in the control of apoptosis but their exact roles in regulating the process remain obscure. Because Ca2+ can serve as a signal for cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria, we hypothesized that alterations in intracellular Ca2+ compartmentalization might serve as a release signal in whole cells undergoing apoptosis. Exposure of human PC-3 prostate adenocarcinoma cells to staurosporine or DNA damaging agent (doxorubicin) but not to anti-Fas antibody led to early release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequent accumulation of Ca2+ within mitochondria. Both events were blocked in cells stably transfected with Bcl-2 but were not affected by treatment with the pancaspase inhibitor, zVADfmk. The effects of staurosporine were associated with re-localization of Bax from the cytosol to both endoplasmic reticular and mitochondrial membranes. Neither ER Ca 2+ pool depletion nor mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake were observed in DU-145 cells that possess a frameshift mutation in the Bax gene unless wild-type Bax was restored via adenoviral gene transfer. Cytochrome c release and downstream features of apoptosis were attenuated by treatment with an inhibitor of mitochondria) Ca2+ uptake (RU-360). Although, direct pharmacological ER Ca2+ pool emptying in cells treated with thapsigargin did not lead to early cytochrome c release, pretreatment of cells with staurosporine dramatically sensitized mitochondria to thapsigargin-induced cytochrome c release. Together, our data demonstrate that ER-to-mitochondrial Ca2+ fluxes promote cytochrome c release and apoptosis in cells exposed to some (but not all) pro-apoptosic stimuli.
Nutt, Leta Kang, "Calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria during apoptosis in prostate cancer" (2002). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3046067.