Adenosine mediated lung mast cell degranulation in the mouse
Adenosine has been implicated to play a role in inflammatory processes associated with asthma. Most notable is adenosine's ability to potentiate mediator release from mast cells. Mast cells are bone marrow derived inflammatory cells that can release mediators that have both immediate and chronic effects on airway constriction and inflammation. Most physiological roles of adenosine are mediated through adenosine receptors. Four subtypes of adenosine receptors have been identified, A1, A2A, A2B and A 3. The mechanisms by which adenosine can influence the release of mediators from lung tissue mast cells is not understood due to lack of in vivo models. Mice deficient in the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) have been generated. ADA controls the levels of adenosine in tissues and cells, and consequently, adenosine accumulates in the lungs of ADA-deficient mice. ADA-deficient mice develop features seen in asthmatics, including lung eosinophilia and mucus hypersecretion. In addition, lung tissue mast cell degranulation was associated with elevated adenosine in ADA-deficient lungs and can be prevented by ADA enzyme therapy. We established primary murine lung mast cell cultures, and used real time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence to demonstrate that A 2A, A2B and A3 receptors are expressed on murine lung mast cells. Studies using selective adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists and A3 receptor deficient (A3−/−) mast cells suggested that activation of A3 receptors could induce mast cell mediator release in vitro. Furthermore, this mediator release was associated with increases in intracellular Ca++ that appeared to be mediated through a Gi and PI3K pathway. In addition, nebulized A3 receptor agonist directly induced lung mast cell degranulation in wild type mice while having no effect in A3−/− mice. These results demonstrate that the A3 receptor plays an important role in adenosine mediated murine lung mast cell degranulation. Therefore, the A3 adenosine receptor and its signaling pathways may represent novel therapeutic targets for the treatment and prevention of asthma.
Zhong, Hongyan, "Adenosine mediated lung mast cell degranulation in the mouse" (2002). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3056496.