The characterization of PKC-isozyme specific EGFR-dependent Erk1/2 activation in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines
One growth factor receptor commonly altered during prostate tumor progression is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR signaling regulates Erk1/2 phosphorylation through multiple mechanisms. We hypothesized that PKC isozymes play a role in EGFR-dependent signaling, and that through PKC isozyme selective inhibition, EGFR-dependent Erk1/2 activation can be attenuated in AICaP cells. To test the hypothesis, PKC activation was induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyi-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in PC-3 cells. As a result, Erk1/2 was activated similarly to what was observed upon EGF stimulation. EGF-induced Erk1/2 activation in PC-3 cells was PKC-dependent, as demonstrated through use of a selective PKC inhibitor, GF109203X. This provides evidence for PKC regulatory control over Erk1/2 signaling downstream of EGFR. Next, we demonstrated that when PKC was inhibited by GF109203X, EGF-stimulated Erk1/2 activation was inhibited in PC-3, but not DU145 cells. TPA-stimulated Erk1/2 activation was EGFR-dependent in both DU145 and PC-3 cells, demonstrated through abrogation of Erk1/2 activation by a selective EGFR inhibitor AG1478. These data support PKC control at or upstream of EGFR in AICaP cells. We observed that interfering with ligand/EGFR binding abrogated Erk1/2 signaling in TPA-stimulated cells, revealing a role for PKC upstream of EGFR. Next, we determined which PKC isozymes might be responsible for Erk1/2 regulation. We first determined that human AICaP cell lines express the same PKC isozymes as those observed in clinical prostate cancer specimens (α, ϵ, &zgr;, ι and PKD). Isozyme-selective methods were employed to characterize discrete PKC isozyme function in EGFR-dependent Erk1/2 activation. Pharmacologic inhibitors implicated PKCα in TPA-induced EGFR-dependent Erk1/2 activation in both PC-3 and DU145 cells. Further, the cPKC-specific inhibitor, Gö6976 decreased viablilty of DU145 cells, providing evidence that PKCα is necessary for growth and survival. Finally, resveratrol, a phytochemical with strong cancer therapeutic potential inhibited Erk1/2 activation, and this correlated with selective inhibition of PKCα. These results demonstrate that PKC regulates pathways critical to progression of CaP cells, including those mediated by EGFR. Thus, PKC isozyme-selective targeting is an attractive therapeutic strategy, and understanding the role of specific PKC isozymes in CaP cell growth and survival may aid in development of effective, non-toxic PKC-targeted therapies.
Stewart, Jubilee Ruth, "The characterization of PKC-isozyme specific EGFR-dependent Erk1/2 activation in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines" (2004). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3138888.