Characterization of cytochrome P450 4F subfamily: Functional role and response in inflammation
CYP4F subfamily comprises a group of enzymes that metabolize LTB4 to biologically less active metabolites. These inactive hydroxy products are incapable of chemotaxis and recruitment of inflammatory cells. This has led to a hypothesis that CYP4Fs may modulate inflammatory conditions serving as a signal of resolution. We investigated the regulation of rat CYP4F gene expression under various inflammatory prompts including a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated model system, controlled traumatic brain injury (TBI) model as well as using direct cytokine challenges. CYP4Fs showed an isoform specific response to LPS. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α produced an overall inductive CYP4F response whereas IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, suppressed CYP4F gene expression in primary hepatocytes. The molecular mechanism behind IL-6 mediated CYP4F induction was partially STAT3 dependent. An alternate avenue of triggering the inflammatory cascade is TBI, which is known to cause several secondary effects leading to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. The results from this study elicited that trauma to the brain can produce acute inflammatory changes in organs distant from the injury site. Local production of LTB4 after CNS injury caused mobilization of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils to the lung. In the resolution phase, CYP4F expression increased with time along with the associated activity causing a decline in LTB4 concentration. This marked a significant reduction in neutrophil recruitment to the lung which led to subsequent recovery and repair. In addition, we showed that CYP4Fs are localized primarily in pulmonary endothelium. We speculate that the temporally regulated LTB4 clearance in the endothelium may be a novel target for treatment of pulmonary inflammation following injury. In humans, several CYP4F isoforms have been identified and shown to metabolize LTB4 and other endogenous eicosanoids. However, the specific activity of the recently cloned human CYP4F11 is unknown. In the final part of this thesis, CYP4F11 protein was expressed in yeast in parallel to CYP4F3A. To our surprise, CYP4F11 displayed a different substrate profile than CYP4F3A. CYP4F3A metabolized eicosanoids while CYP4F11 was a better catalyst for therapeutic drugs. Thus, besides their endogenous function in clearing inflammation, CYP4Fs also may play a part in drug metabolism.
Kalsotra, Auinash, "Characterization of cytochrome P450 4F subfamily: Functional role and response in inflammation" (2005). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3160648.