Physiologic and psychosocial stage-based differences for dietary fat consumption in women with type 2 diabetes
Purpose. This cross-sectional, observational study explored differences among groups staged for intent to decrease dietary fat intake in women with type 2 diabetes in relation to demographic, weight concern, physiological, and psychosocial variables. Methods. A sample of 100 community-dwelling, English-speaking women, who were over age 30 and had type 2 diabetes for at least a year, was accessed through a culturally diverse endocrinology clinic. Subjects completed 7 self-report instruments: demographic sheet, with 11-point weight satisfaction scale; staging algorithm; fat intake (MEDFICTS); depression (CES-D); diabetes-specific dietary knowledge (ADKnowl), social support and self-efficacy scales (SE-Type 2). Physiological variables were abstracted from the medical record (HbA 1c, blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triglycerides). Results. The women's average age was 57.69 years ( SD = 3.07); 50% were married. Subjects were well-educated ( M = 14 years; SD = 3.33), with average diabetes duration of 10.57 years (SD = 9.11), high body mass index (M = 35.72; SD = 8.36), low diabetes-specific dietary knowledge, low weight satisfaction, but in good diabetes control. Racial/ethnic composition was 44% non-Hispanic-White-American, 18% Hispanic-White-American, 15% non-Hispanic-African-American, 16% Hispanic-African-American and 5% other. Fat intake was low and differed by racial/ethnic demographics. The highest fat intake scores were for non-Hispanic-African-Americans (M = 53), followed by Hispanic-White-Americans (M = 51), non-Hispanic-White-Americans (M = 45), and Hispanic-African-Americans (M = 32), who had the lowest fat intake scores. MANOVA analyses revealed no significant differences between stages of behavior change in relation to psychosocial or weight concern variables, age, education, HbA1c, or cholesterol levels. Single women were more likely to be in the three preaction stages (precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation); married women were equally distributed across stages (the preaction stages plus action and maintenance). African-American women (Hispanic and non-Hispanic) were more likely in contemplation and preparation. Triglycerides were higher in women in the action stage than contemplation or preparation. Systolic blood pressure was higher in action than preparation; diastolic blood pressure was higher in action than preaction. Conclusions. Healthcare professionals should consider race, ethnicity, and marital status in client interactions. Dietary intake can vary according to both race and ethnicity; collapsing racial/ethnic groups can alter means and distributions, generating faulty conclusions. Further research is warranted to explore relationships between dietary self-care and marital status, race, ethnicity, and physiological variables.
Quackenbush, Patricia A, "Physiologic and psychosocial stage-based differences for dietary fat consumption in women with type 2 diabetes" (2005). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3164937.