The impact of a brief foot care intervention for persons with diabetes

Wanda J Borges, The University of Texas School of Nursing at Houston


Purpose of the study. The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine if a brief intervention would improve foot self-care behaviors in adult patients with Type 2 diabetes who presented to the emergency department for non-emergent care in a predominantly Hispanic southwestern border community. Methods. A pre-post-test, three-group design was used to compare the foot self-care behaviors of patients who received usual care to those who received lower extremity amputation (LEA) risk assessment and to those who received LEA risk assessment plus a brief foot self-care intervention. After being randomized into 3 groups (N = 167), baseline assessments of demographics, diabetes history, acculturation, and the Summary of Diabetes Self Care Activities (SDSCA) questionnaire and Modified Insulin Management Diabetes Self Efficacy Scale (MIMDSES) were completed in English or Spanish. At one-month, 144 (84%) participants were available for follow-up by the research assistant masked to group assignment. Results. At baseline, significant differences in foot self-care behaviors and self monitoring blood glucose were noted based on ethnicity and gender. Men had significantly lower confidence in their ability to manage their diabetes overall. There was a significant difference between baseline and follow up self reported foot self-care behaviors within the intervention group (t (47) = −4.32, p < .01) and the control group (t (46) = −2.06, p < .05). There were no significant differences between groups for self-reported foot self-care behaviors. There was a significant difference in observed foot self-care behaviors between groups (F(2,135) = 2.99, p < .05). Self-efficacy scores were positively correlated with self-reported self-care behaviors. Conclusions. This predominantly Hispanic population with type 2 diabetes reported performing diabetes self-care behaviors less than five days a week. There were within group changes, but no significant between group changes in reported self-care behaviors. However, at the one month follow up, there were significant differences between groups in observed foot self-care behaviors with the intervention group demonstrating the most accurate behaviors. Differences based on gender and ethnicity emphasize the need to individualize diabetes education. Priorities for culturally competent diabetes education, approaches to increasing self-efficacy and future research directions are suggested.

Subject Area

Nursing|Public health

Recommended Citation

Borges, Wanda J, "The impact of a brief foot care intervention for persons with diabetes" (2004). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3166194.