Role of the glutathione S -transferase P1 (GSTP1) electrophile binding site (H-site) in protection from doxorubicin -mediated cytotoxicity
The hypothesis addressed in this project was that novel variants of naturally occurring human glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) can be created by random mutagenesis of the GSTP1 active site to yield polypeptides with increased enzymatic activity against electrophilic substrates. Specifically, the mutant proteins would metabolize and inactivate selected electrophiles more efficiently than wild-type GSTP1 and confer significant cytoprotection, as measured by reduced apoptosis and increased clonogenic survival. Glutathione S-transferase P1, a major electrophile metabolizing and detoxifying enzyme, is encoded by a polymorphic genetic locus. This locus contains nucleotide transitions in the region encoding the active site of the peptide that yields proteins with significant structural and functional differences. The method of Degenerate Oligonucleotide Mediated Random Mutagenesis (DOMRM) was used to generate cDNAs encoding unique GSTP1 polypeptides with mutations within electrophile binding site (H-site) while leaving the glutathione binding site unaffected. A prokaryotic expression library of the mutant GSTP1 polypeptides was created and screened for increased resistance to cisplatin. This screen resulted in the isolation of 96 clones representing 22 distinct mutant cDNA sequences. To investigate the effects of the changes in the H-site on the biological activity of GSTP1, the cDNA of wild-type GSTP1c and two of the identified mutants were stably transfected into human LNCaP-Pro5 prostate cancer cells that do not endogenously express GSTP1. Wild-type transfectants were resistant to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and displayed increased clonogenic survival compared to vector controls. However, contrary to the hypothesis, in both assays the mutant transfectants were no more resistant to doxorubicin than the wild-type transfectants. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying GSTP1-mediated survival, an in-vitro assay was developed to determine whether active GSTP1 protein directly metabolizes doxorubicin by conjugation to reduced glutathione (GSH). Although GSH did promote the appearance of a unique doxorubicin conjugate, conjugate formation was not substantially increased by the addition of GSTP1 in a variety of reaction conditions.
Stephenson, Susan Toole, "Role of the glutathione S -transferase P1 (GSTP1) electrophile binding site (H-site) in protection from doxorubicin -mediated cytotoxicity" (2005). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3168447.