The role of functional tumor suppressor 15-lipoxygenase 2 (15-LOX2) in normal human prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer development
15-Lipoxygenase 2 (15-LOX2) is a recently cloned human lipoxygenase that shows tissue-restricted expression in prostate, lung, skin, and cornea. The protein level and enzymatic activity of 15-LOX2 have been shown to be down-regulated in prostate cancers compared with normal and benign prostate tissues. We report the cloning and functional characterization of 15-LOX2 and its three splice variants (termed 15-LOX2sv-a, 15-LOX2sv-b, and 15-LOX2sv-c) from primary prostate epithelial (NHP) cells. Western blotting with multiple NHP cell strains and prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines reveals that the expression of 15-LOX2 is lost in all PCa cell lines, accompanied by decreased enzymatic activity. 15-LOX2 is expressed at multiple subcellular locations, including cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, cell-cell border, and nucleus. Surprisingly, the three splice variants of 15-LOX2 are mostly excluded from the nucleus. To elucidate the relationship between nuclear localization, enzymatic activity, and tumor suppressive functions, we established PCa cell clones stably expressing 15-LOX2 or 15-LOX2sv-b. The 15-LOX2 clones express 15-LOX2 in the nuclei and possess robust enzymatic activity, whereas 15-LOX2sv-b clones show neither nuclear protein localization nor arachidonic acid-metabolizing activity. Interestingly, both 15-LOX2- and 15-LOX2sv-b-stable clones proliferate much slower in vitro when compared with control clones. When orthotopically implanted in nude mouse prostate, both 15-LOX2 and 15-LOX2sv-b suppress PC3 tumor growth in vivo. Finally, cultured NHP cells lose the expression of putative stem/progenitor cell markers, slow down in proliferation, and enter senescence. Several pieces of evidence implicate 15-LOX2 plays a role in replicative senescence of NHP cells: (1) promoter activity and the mRNA and protein levels of 15-LOX2 and its splice variants are upregulated in serially passaged NHP cells, which precede replicative senescence and occur in a cell-autonomous manner; (2) PCa cells stably expressing 15-LOX2 or 15-LOX2sv-b show a passage-related senescence-like phenotype; (3) enforced expression of 15-LOX2 or 15-LOX2sv-b in young NHP cells induce partial cell-cycle arrest and senescence-like phenotypes. Together, these results suggest that 15-LOX2 suppress prostate tumor development and do not necessarily depend on arachidonic acid-metabolizing activity and nuclear localization. Also, 15-LOX2 may serve as an endogenous prostate senescence gene and its tumor-suppressing functions might be associated with its ability to induce cell senescence.
Bhatia, Bipin, "The role of functional tumor suppressor 15-lipoxygenase 2 (15-LOX2) in normal human prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer development" (2005). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3193456.