Regulation of T cell function by complement C5A in mice during mycobacterial infection
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in the world due to a single infectious agent, making it critical to investigate all aspects of the immune response mounted against the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis , in order to better treat and prevent disease. Previous observations show a disparity in the ability to control mycobacterial growth between mouse strains sufficient in C5, such as C57BL/6 and B10.D2/nSnJ, and those naturally deficient in C5, such as A/J and B10.D2/nSnJ, with C5 deficient mice being more susceptible. It has been shown that during M. tuberculosis infection, C5 deficient macrophages have a defect in production of interleukin (IL)-12, a cytokine involved in the cyclical activation between infected macrophages and effector T cells. T cells stimulated by IL-12 produce interferon (IFN)-γ, the signature cytokine of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells. It is known that a cell-mediated Th1 response is crucial for control of M. tuberculosis in the lungs of humans and mice. This study demonstrates that murine T cells express detectable levels of CD88, a receptor for C5a (C5aR), following antigen presentation by macrophages infected with mycobacteria. T cells from C5 deficient mice infected with M. tuberculosis were found to secrete less IFN-γ and had a reduced Th1 phenotype associated with fewer cells expressing the transcription factor, T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet). The altered Th1 phenotype in M. tuberculosis infected C5 deficient mice coincided with a rise in IL-4 and IL-10 secretion from Th2 cells and inducible regulatory T cells, respectively. It was found that the ineffective T cell response to mycobacteria in C5 deficient mice was due indirectly to a lack of C5a via poor priming by infected macrophages and possibly by a direct interaction between T cells and C5a peptide. Therefore, these studies show a link between the cells of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, macrophages and T cells respectively, that was mediated by C5a using a mouse model of M. tuberculosis infection.
Mashruwala, Mary Anne, "Regulation of T cell function by complement C5A in mice during mycobacterial infection" (2006). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3249202.