The roles of costimulatory molecules in the cooperative effects of combination epinephrine and dexamethasone on type-1/type-2 cytokine production in tetanus-toxoid specific stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
A growing number of studies show strong associations between stress and altered immune function. In vivo studies of chronic and acute stress have demonstrated that cognitive stressors are strongly correlated with high circulating levels of catecholamines (CT) and corticosteroids (CS) that are associated with changes in type-1/type-2 cytokine expression. Although individual pharmacologic doses of CS and CT can inhibit the expression of T-helper 1 (Th1, type-1 like) and promote the production of T-helper 2 (Th2, type-2 like) cytokines in antigen-specific and mitogen stimulated human leukocyte cultures in vitro, little attention has been focused on the effects of combination physiologic-stress doses of CT and CS that may be more physiologically relevant. In addition, both in-vivo and in-vitro studies suggest that the differential expression of the B7 family of costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 may promote the expression of type-1 or type-2 cytokines, respectively. Furthermore, corticosteroids can influence the expression of β2-adrenergic receptors in various human tissues. We therefore investigated the combined effects of physiologic-stress doses of in vitro CT and CS upon the type-1/type-2 cytokine balance and expression of B7 costimulatory molecules of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as a model to study the immunomodulatory effects of physiologic stress. Results demonstrated a significant decrease in type-1 cytokine expression and a significant increase in type-2 cytokine production in our CS+CT incubated cultures when compared to either CT or CS agents alone. In addition, we demonstrated the differential expression of CD80/CD86 in favor of CD86 at the cellular and population level as determined by flow cytometry in lipopolysaccharide stimulated human Monocytes. Furthermore, we developed flow cytometry based assays to detect total β2AR in human CD4+ T-lymphocytes that demonstrated decreased expression of β2AR in mitogen stimulated CD4+ T-lymphocytes in the presence of physiologic stress levels of CS and CT as single in vitro agents, however, when both CS and CT were combined, significantly higher expression of β2AR was observed. In summary, our in vitro data suggest that both CS and CT work cooperatively to shift immunity towards type-2 responses.
Salicru, Adriano N, "The roles of costimulatory molecules in the cooperative effects of combination epinephrine and dexamethasone on type-1/type-2 cytokine production in tetanus-toxoid specific stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells" (2007). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3256561.