The role and mechanism of supressor of cytokine signaling 1 in brain metastasis
Brain metastasis, which occurs in 40%-60% of patients with advanced melanoma, has led directly to death in the majority of cases. Unfortunately, little is known about the biological and molecular basis of melanoma brain metastases. In our previous study, we developed a model to study human melanoma brain metastasis and found that Stat3 activity was increased in human brain metastatic melanoma cells when compared with that in cutaneous melanoma cells. The increased activation of Stat3 is also responsible for affecting melanoma angiogenesis in vivo and melanoma cell invasion in vitro and significantly affecting the expression of bFGF, VEGF, and MMP-2 in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, a member of a new family of cytokine-inducible inhibitors of signal transduction, termed suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) was found to negatively regulate the Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) signaling cascade. Here we report that restoration of SOCS1 expression by transfecting of SOCS1-expressing vector effectively inhibited melanoma brain metastasis through inhibiting Stat3 activation and further affecting melanoma angiogenesis and melanoma cell invasion in vitro, and significantly affected the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we used cDNA array to compare mRNA expression in the SOCS1-transfected and vector-transfected cell lines and found some genes are tightly correlated to the restoration of SOCS1. One of them is Caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Cav-1 was reported to function as a tumor suppressor gene by several groups. Finally, the Cav-1 expression is up-regulated in SOCS1-overexpressing cell line. Further study found the regulation of Cav-1 by SOCS1 occurs through inhibiting Stat3 activation. Activated Stat3 binds directly to Cav-1 promoter and the Cav-1 promoter within -575bp is essential for active Stat3 binding. My studies reveal that Stat3 activation and SOCS1 expression play important roles in melanoma metastases. Moreover, the expression between SOCS1, Stat3 and Cav-1 forms a feedback regulation loop.
Huang, Feng-Ju, "The role and mechanism of supressor of cytokine signaling 1 in brain metastasis" (2007). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3272108.