Border intervention by Promotores for type 2 diabetes

Constance S Sixta, The University of Texas School of Nursing at Houston


Purpose of the study. This study had two components. The first component of the study was the development and implementation of an infrastructure that integrated Promotores who teach diabetes self-management into a community clinic. The second component was a six-month randomized clinical trial (RCT) designed to test the effectiveness of the Promotores in changing knowledge, beliefs, and HbA1c levels among Mexican American patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Starfield's adaptation of the Donbedian structure, process, and outcome methodology was used to develop a clinic infrastructure that allowed the integration of Promotores as diabetes educators. The RCT of the culturally sensitive Promotores-led 10-week diabetes self-management program compared the outcomes of 63 patients in the intervention group with 68 patients in a wait-list, usual care control group. Participants were Mexican Americans, at least 18 years of age, with type 2 diabetes, who were patients at a Federally Qualified Health Center on the Texas-Mexico border. At baseline, three months, and six months, data were collected using the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ, the Health Beliefs Questionnaire (HBQ, and HbA1c levels were drawn by the clinic laboratory. A mixed model methodology was used to analyze the data. Results. The infrastructure to support a Promotores-led diabetes self-management course designed in concert with administration, the physicians, and the CDE, resulted in (1) employment of Promotores to teach diabetes self-management courses; (2) integration of provider and nurse oversight of course design and implementation; (3) management of Promotora training, and the development of teaching competencies and skills; (4) coordination of care through communication and documentation policies and procedures; (5) utilization of quality control mechanisms to maintain patient safety; and (6) promotion of a culturally competent approach to the educational process. The RCT resulted in a significant improvement in the intervention group's DKQ scores over time (F [1, 129] = 4.77, p = 0.0308), and in treatment by time (F [2, 168] = 5.85, p = 0.0035). Neither the HBQ scores nor the HbA1c changed over time. However, the baseline HbA1c was 7.49, almost at the therapeutic level. The DKQ, HBQ, and HbA1c results were significantly affected by age; the DKQ and HbA1c by years with diabetes. Conclusions. The clinic model provides a systematic approach to safely address the educational needs of large numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes who live in communities that suffer from a lack of health care professionals. The Promotores-led diabetes self-management course improved the knowledge of patients with diabetes and may be a culturally sensitive strategy for meeting patient educational needs. The low baseline HbA1c levels in this border community suggested that patients in this Federally Qualified Health Center on the Texas-Mexico border were experiencing good medical management of their diabetes.

Subject Area

Nursing|Hispanic American studies

Recommended Citation

Sixta, Constance S, "Border intervention by Promotores for type 2 diabetes" (2007). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3281712.