Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) promotes glioma development and progression
Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) is associated with progression and poor survival in many types of human cancer (such as prostate, ovarian, adrenocortical, breast, colorectal carcinomas, leukemia, and high-grade gliomas). We therefore hypothesize that IGFBP2 is a key regulator of tumor progression. We tested our hypothesis in gliomas using the somatic gene transfer RCAS-tva mouse model system, which permits the introduction of specific genes into specific, cell lineages, in this case glial cells (RCAS: Replication competent avian sarcomavirus, tv-a: avian RCAS virus receptor). Mice are transgenic and harbor the tv-a receptor under the control of a glial-specific promoter and study genes are cloned into the RCAS vector for post-natal intracranial delivery. For these experiments, the study genes were IGFBP2, platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB), K-Ras, Akt, and IIp45 (invasion inhibitory protein 45 kDa; known to bind and block IGFBP2 activity), which were delivered separately and in combination. Our results show that PDGFB signaling leads exclusively to the formation of low-grade (WHO grade II) oligodendrogliomas. PDGFB delivered in combination with IGFBP2 results in the formation of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade III), which are characterized by increased cellularity, vascular proliferation, small regions of necrosis, increased mitotic activity, and increased activation of the Akt pathway. IIp45 injected in combination with PDGFB and IGFBP2 ablates IGFBP2-induced tumor progression, which results in formation of low-grade oligodendrogliomas, and an overall reduction in tumor incidence. K-Ras expression was required to form astrocytomas with either IGFBP2 or Akt, indicating the activation of two separate pathways is necessary for gliomagenesis. In ex vivo experiments, blockade of Akt by an inhibitor led to decreased viability of cells co-expressing IGFBP2 versus PDGFB expression alone. This study provides definitive evidence, for the first time, that: (1) IGFBP2 plays a role in activation of the Akt pathway, (2) IGFBP2 collaborates with K-Ras or PDGFB in the development and progression of two major types of glioma, and (3) IGFBP2-induced tumor progression can be ablated by IIp45 or by specific inhibition of the Akt pathway.
Dunlap, Sarah M, "Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) promotes glioma development and progression" (2007). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3287847.