Scaffolding of adenylyl cyclase by A Kinase Anchoring Proteins
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) converts ATP into cAMP, which activates protein kinase A (PKA). Activation of PKA leads to the phosphorylation of specific substrates. The mechanism of specificity of PKA phosphorylation baffled researchers for many years. The discovery of A Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs) has helped to unravel this mystery. AKAPs function to target PKA to specific regions within the cell. They also anchor other enzymes, receptors, or channels leading to tightly regulated signaling modules. Several studies have suggested an important role for activated PKA in these complexes, including the AKAPs yotiao and muscle AKAP (mAKAP). Yotiao, a plasma membrane AKAP, anchors PP1, NMDA receptors, IP3 receptors, and heart potassium channel subunit KCNQI. PKA phosphorylation of NMDA receptors as well as KCNQI leads to increased channel activity. Patients with mutations in KCNQI or yotiao that cause loss of targeting of KCNQI develop long QT syndrome, which can be fatal. mAKAP anchors several CAMP/PKA-regulated pathways to the nuclear envelope in cardiac myocytes. The necessity of activated PKA in these complexes led to the hypothesis that AC is also anchored. The results indicate that AC does associate with yotiao in brain and heart, specifically with AC types I-III, and IX. Co-expression of AC II or III with yotiao leads to inhibition of each isoform's activity. Binding assays revealed that yotiao binds to the N-terminus of AC II and that this region can reverse the inhibition of AC II, but not AC III, indicating unique binding sites on yotiao. AC II binds directly to as 808-957 of yotiao. Y808-957 acts as a dominant negative as the addition of it to rat brain membranes results in a ∼40% increase in AC activity. Additionally, AC was also found to associate with mAKAP in heart, specifically with AC types II and V. The binding site of AC was mapped to 275-340 of mAKAP, while mAKAP binds to the soluble domains of AC V as a complex. These results indicate that interactions between AC and AKAPs are specific and that AC plays an important role in AKAP-targeted signaling.
Piggott, Leslie Ann, "Scaffolding of adenylyl cyclase by A Kinase Anchoring Proteins" (2008). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3289983.